Umar Khayyam

Umar Khayyam
February 22 19:02 2015 Print This Article

Ghiyath al-Din Abu Umar ibn Ibrahim him al-Fath al-Khayyami Nisaburi / غیاث الدین ابوالفتح عمر ابراهیم خیام نیشابورى was born on 18 May of the year 1040/1048 of the Christian era, in the city of Nishapur, Khorasan Province in Iran.

Born during the firstborn sultan Togrul Beg Seldjucizilor Dynasty poet Omar Khayyam takes his pseudonym, to honor his father’s craft: tentmakers, but this can not confirm with certainty.

Sources on the poet’s life come from some excerpts from two books of memoirs written by two of his friends and contemporaries: Hassan Hassan Tusi and Babbah.

He spent his childhood in Balham town (now in northern Afghanistan), where he studied under the guidance of Sheikh Imam Muhammad Mansuri and then Mowaffaq of Nishapur.

Khayyam was to say later that he had a very hectic life, considering that lived during the Seljuk Empire formation.

As a disciple of Imam Mowaffaq bound by a close friendship Hassan Sabbah, the founder of the sect of assassins later, and Hassan Tusi, known as the honorary title of al-molka Nizizam future Seljuk vizier Empire.

Sources on the friendship between the three states that would have sworn support if one of them had climbed hierarchies.

statuia lui umar khayyam din bucurestiAfter four years, with graduation, split up, each following his destiny. Meanwhile, Khayyam wrote poetry and studied astronomy and algebra, Hassan Tusi studied history, administrative laws and mysteries policy and Hassan Sabbah extraordinary figure later East, crave doomed day to throw and it require the political arena.

The first to come out of the shadows Hassan Tusi was once became vizier in 1063, has forgotten the vow with two friends and Sabbah Khayyam during studies of Nishapur.

After the proposal made by Hassan Tusi, and refusing to hold the position of advisor to the Sultan or the Government of Nishapur, Omar Khayyam wandered through various places: Samarkand, Isphan, Merv.

Omar Khayyam ardently cultivated poetry, mathematics and astronomy deepened, becoming the most famous scientist of his time.
In 1074 he was appointed director of the Observatory of Merv, a post he held until his death Malek Shah in 1092, and in 1079 was called to chair a committee of eight astronomers musulma calendar reform. Pierre Salet, astronomer at the Paris Observatory owner stated that: Omar Khayyam’s calendar is more accurate than that of the Gregorian reform, made five centuries later.

In 1112-13 we meet in Balk, as a guest of the emir Abu Saad Djeereh with fellow astronomer and writer Nizami He Isfizari Arudi.

The last years of his life were passed quietly year at Nishapur, surrounded by the Sultan honors and attention Sandjar.
On 4 December 1122/1131 aged 82 years died on the Persian poet Omar Khayyam famous.

Şemeddin biographer Şahrazuri in the work of spirits walk in the garden joys (includes 111 biographies of scholars, there is a version of Arabic and Persian in the eighth century (XIII), we are told last moments of life of the great scientist: “Meditate on a passage from theological -a work of Avicenna. Arriving at Chapter One and plural, let the book down, got up, prayed and testament written and without food and have a drink. After evening prayer and did, saying prostrate themselves ‘Oh my God, Thou knowest that I am aware of the extent of my powers Thee, forgive me then, and this knowledge mediator me to get to you! “, then die.”

Nizam Arudi writer wrote: “When we arrived at Nishapur in 530 (1135-1136) 14 years had passed since this great light was gone. I felt indebted to him who was my master. In a Friday so I went to the cemetery with a man who knew where the tomb. (Tomb is in a league of Nishapur actual- once great city was destroyed several ori- near Imamzade mosque, tomb of Mohammed Arsul). Arrivals. On the left hand was wall with a door that opened into an orchard. There, I saw a mound over that, over the wall, pear and apple trees spread their branches. The ground was strewn with flowers. Then I remembered the words spoken by Khayyam in Balk, and my eyes filled with tears, because I never met a man on earth can compare them. “

According to these reports Omar Khayyam wanted to odihneascăîntr a land with an early spring, and flourishing in his hometown earth, whose praise we note the following quatrain: “My tomb will be a place where every spring wind North, I shall blossom. “

Omar Khayyam Opera includes several scientific and literary one: 170 quatrains or rubaiyate.
From scientific work only five papers we have received:
1. Demonstration of algebra problems, Arabic text, translated into French by N. Woepke in 1851, Paris.
2. On some problems of Euclid’s definitions, manuscript in the Library of Leiden.
3. Determination of gold and silver in aliagii- four data pages of Fr. Rosen at the end of his edition Rubaiyate 1925.
4. On Fiinţei- manuscript in the British Museum.
5. Garden Hearts – a treatise on philosophy, discovered by Arthur Cristensen, of which we have left very few pages at the National Library in Paris.
6. The titles of his other works we have been retained by various writers Orientals:
1. Table astronomical.
2. A Handbook of Natural Sciences.
3. On Being and aBinecuvântării.
4. On climatic variations.
5. A treaty for extracting square and cube roots.
Pierre Salet said that “Omar Khayyam made to advance the science of his time,” and that the first systematic study of equations of the third degree is owed him. »
In Europe, his work is becoming known because Orientalist scholars following operators:
 In the first half of the seventeenth century, in his book “Veterum Perarum Religio” Dr. Thomas Hyde.
 In the early eighteenth century by Sir Gore savanatul Useley
 In 1818 the book “Geschicte der Schonen Redekunste Persiens» J. Baron von Hammer Purgstall.
 In 1827 the book “Grammatik, Poetik Rhetorik und der Persen» by Friedrich Ruckert.
 In 1857 the “Notes sur le Khayyam Rubaiyat d’Omar» Garcin’s the Tassy.
 In 1858 Edward Bykes Cowell and the circle will remain closed until 1859, when it appears in London at the bookstore Quaritch, a small booklet: “Omer Khayyam Rubaiyat of rendered into English verse”, by Edward Fitz Gerald, printed in 250 copies, comprising 75 quatrains, with a preface and notes, with many elements borrowed from the study appeared a year before the Calcutta Review, signed orientalist scholar Byles Cowell, who was chairman of the Sanskrit College in that city.

Book of Fitz Gerald gone unnoticed, although English literature represent almost a work unit.
 In 1867 appears at Paris’ Les Quatrains of Kheyam, traduits du Persian seem JB Nicolas, former premier of l’Ambassade drogman française en Perse “, the Imperial Printing from the Emperor.

The volume includes prose text and translation of 466 quatrains, without appearing spring d ecătre author.
Because of Théophile Gautier’s artic “Universal Gazette” of December 8, 1867, the British literary attention of Fitz Gerald brochures, discovered a small library of art writer William Morris.

According to Charles Grolleau, who was one of Omar Khayyam translators, the work of Fitz Gerald, small booklet, printed in 250 copies and nameless author was dissolved slowly in the price of a penny.

He who has found work in the library Quaritch Dante Gabriel Rosetti was. No Scriitorulpersan Ali-Rouse called the translation as “false variations of Fitz Gerald” and “heinous betrayal” – JB Nicolas’s work, published in 1867.

After the death of his work Persian poet has increased thanks to his disciples, exceeding the number of quatrains 1200.

Text printed in Calcutta in 1836, contains 492 quatrains, however different manuscripts have been preserved in the libraries of Paris, Cambridge, London, Leningrad, Constantinople, Berlin, India, comprising a number of quatrains which varies with each manuscript preserved .

Oxford manuscript no. 140, dated 1400, which is the oldest manuscript contains 158 quatrains ami after Edward Fitz Gerald who translated.

Today Omer Khayyam’s work has survived thanks to the intellectual elite and admiration of his disciples.

To understand the work of the great Persian poet, play some of his quatrains:

Quatrains

Hear what thy wisdom repeated daily: “Life is short.
Thou hast nothing to do with plants that grow again after they were cut.
Everyone should you go on the road of Truth.
Humble looking for, others argue that they found.
But one day, a voice will cry: “There is no road or trail!”
This is the only truth: we are pawns mysterious chess played by my God moves us, stopping us, moves us and then we threw one at the box nothingness.
You see not only the appearance of things and beings. You realize your ignorance, but do not want to give up love.
Know that God gave us love, as he left some poisonous plants.
Close Quran. Think about free and open to the sky and the earth. Poor passing, give him half of what you have. Forgive all guilty, not ntrista anyone, and hide thyself when smiling.

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